From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 4-17
Anne Folke Henningsen *
Title: Visualising culture in the ethnographic collections of the Danish National Museum.
Abstract: In a case study of the reorganisation of the ethnographic exhibition at the Danish National Museum in the 1930s, the author questions the assumed effects of the curatorial strategies of one of the central characters behind it, Kaj Birket-Smith. Contrary to the explicit intentions of the curator, it is argued, the new style of exhibition invited the Danish public to understand themselves as culturally superior to the people represented, by positioning the latter outside of time and history. The wider implications of such representations of authenticity and timelessness in the ‘other’ are briefly discussed in relation to present-day ethnographic exhibitions.
Key words: Ethnographic collections and exhibitions, anthropological theories, popular education, denial of coevalness, ’natural’ and ’cultural’ peoples, discourses of cultural authenticity.
*Anne Folke Henningsen, Ph.D., adjunkt i etnologi
Address: Saxo-Instituttet, Københavns Universitet, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 København S, Danmark
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 18-32
Eva D. Johansen *
Title: Objects and meanings in the post-colonial museum. Contact zones and autoethnography.
Abstract: James Clifford has proposed looking at museums as contact zones, where different knowledge systems meet. In a collaborative project between Alta Museum and Alta Secondary School in Finnmark, Norway, the museum made an attempt to open up the power relationship between the museum and students and families by giving space in the exhibitions to “private” objects and stories from everyday life. In this article, I discuss the opportunities and constraints associated with opening up the museums methodology for the objects and meanings that “the others” have considered worthy of preservation. I argue that the changing structures of museum practice may lead to new reflections on history and heritage in a museum context, and to the democratization of public cultural heritage production.
Key words: Museum, colonialism, heritage, diversity, collaboration, contact zones, reflexivity.
**Eva D. Johansen, hovedfag i sosialantropologi fra Universitetet i Tromsø, arbeider som museumspedagog ved Verdensarvsenter for bergkunst — Alta Museum
Adresse: Verdensarvsenter for bergkunst — Alta Museum Altaveien 19 NO-9518 Alta, Norge
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 33-46
Title: Diversity and museological heterotopias - about naturalization and nationalization of cultural diversity in migrant nations.
Abstract: In old nation states such as those in Scandinavia, one current agenda is to bring cultural diversity into the museums in order to break up the mono-cultural narrative (whether national or local), and as such to undermine the formation and solidification of nation states that the nineteenth-century proliferation of museums was undoubtedly closely linked with. In the twenty-first century, migration — in particular - has challenged the traditional grand narratives of national heritage and unity materialized in museums. However, when turning to settler or migrant nations, this agenda is turned upside down. Discussing examples from museums in New York and Sydney and their way of dealing with migrant identities and indigenous people, this paper argues that cultural diversity can also be naturalized, normalized, or even nationalized as cultural heritage. In this alternative grand narrative, indigenous people risk ending up as an anomaly or internal ‘other’. Finally , these complex dynamics of cultural diversity and musealising practices are discussed in the perspective of the Foucauldian notion of heterotopias.
Key words: Migrant identity, cultural diversity, heterotopia.
* Tine Damsholt, lektor og ph.d. i etnologi ved Københavns Universitet
Adresse: Saxo-instituttet, Københavns Universitet Amager, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 København S
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 47-63
Eva Reme* og Olaug Norun Økland*
Title: Objects and Typologies - exploring the agricultural exhibition at Dalane Folk Museum.
Abstract: The Folk Museum at Dalane is a regional museum for the four southernmost municipalities in Rogaland on the southwest coast of Norway. Established in 1910, it is a museum typical of the period in which the Norwegian folk museums were set up. The point of departure for this article is the museums typological agricultural exhibition, which still is untouched, exactly as it was mounted in 1952. By emphasizing a micro-perspective the authors illuminate how ideas and practices both followed and departed from well-established museum paradigms. The applied actor-perspective emphasizes the importance of the individuals who were actually responsible for the organization and development of the museum. The article accentuates the museum actors’ attitudes and approaches towards the material objects, as well as their way of mounting and organizing the exhibition. Furthermore, by taking into consideration the way they built and participated in various social networks, the intention is also to shed light on how the museum actors negotiated between their own ambitions and established norms for collecting and forming exhibitions. In this way it is possible to follow how local museums can simultaneously confirm and challenge existing museum paradigms.
Key words: Museum, folk museum, material culture, exhibition, agricultural exhibition, typological exhibition, collection.
*Eva Reme er dr. art. og arbeider som førsteamanuensis i kulturvitenskap ved Universitetet i Bergen
Adresse: AHKR. UiB Øysteinsgt. 3 NO-5007 Bergen, Norge
*Olaug Norun Økland er cand. philol, i etnologi og arbeider som konservator ved Dalane Folkemuseum
Adresse: Dalane Folkemuseum, P.b. 338, NO-4379 Egersund, Norge
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 64-82
Sarah Holst Kjær*
Title: Museal place development: Tordenskjold was here!
Abstract: Regional museums are shifting their focus away from collections and are involving themselves in urban planning, place design and place making. ‘History’ has become an identity brand which marks sights. During the last decade, museums have therefore engaged in a new role as cultural innovators. When transforming urbanity into experiencescapes, the museal competence regarding ‘the local past’ is recycled into geographies of recreational consumption. This article discusses a particular case of urban planning — the development of the Isegran tourist and recreational area in Fredrikstad, Norway. Here the town's city council included the local museum in defining a 'master plan for cultural regeneration. Urban place making took its point of departure in the town’s maritime history.
Keywords: Cultural planning, experience design, community design, aestheticisation, storytelling, maritime heritage, ordinary things.
**Sarah Holst Kjær, fil. dr, senior researcher
Adresse: Agder Research, Department of Culture Industries, Gimlemoen 19, NO-4630 Kristiansand, Norge
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 83-96
Nika Potinkara *
Abstract: Nordic Sámi museums have been established with the aim of reclaiming Sámi heritage and strengthening Sámi cultural identity. Museums are significant places for representing ethnic groups and boundaries, and Sámi museums play an important role in defining Sámi ethnicity. This article discusses the construction of Sámi ethnicity in the permanent exhibitions of two Sámi museums, Siida in Finland and Ájtte in Sweden, focusing on the display of reindeer herding. In which particular ways do these exhibitions represent reindeer herding and the Sámi as reindeer herders? The article suggests that representations of reindeer herding contribute to the construction of an ethnic boundary, while having relevance also for the internal conflicts among the Sámi.
Key words: Sámi, ethnicity, museum exhibitions, representations, reindeer herding.
*Nika Potinkara, doctoral student at the
Department of History and Ethnology,
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Address: Historian ja etnologian laitos, FI-40014 Jyväskylän yliopisto, Finland
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 97-106
Lotten Gustafsson Reinius*, Eva Silvén* & Fredrik Svanberg*
Title: The sociomaterial dynamics of museum collections
Abstract: “The sociomaterial dynamics of museum collections” is an overarching research idea connecting three separate projects, with the aim of creating new knowledge about the roles of collections and collecting in the shaping of culture and society. The program includes three Swedish national museums that have been decisive in defining Sweden, Swedishness and the surrounding world — the Nordiska Museet (Swedish cultural history) the National Historical Museum (history, archaeology) and the Museum of Ethnography (the third/fourth world). In one study each, two ethnologists and one archaeologist will focus on objects and issues that have in some way been pointed out as problematic but which also seem to have a strong ability to define identity, social relations and create both conflict and reconciliation: collections from indigenous peoples, human remains and repatriation. The program includes three separate and ongoing projects, financed by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond and The Swedish Research Council. The projects are connected by a shared interest in the dynamic interplay between material practices and social processes of change. This will be analyzed with an emphasis on turning points in collecting, classification, display and storage, such as the relocation of objects between and from the museums mentioned.
Key words: Mobility, networks, ritualization, collections, repatriation, minorities, indigenous peoples, human remains, identity politics, materiality.
*Lotten Gustafsson Reinius, docent i etnologi
Adress: Etnografiska museet, Box 27140, SE-102 52 Stockholm, Sverige
*Eva Silvén, fil. dr i etnologi
Adress: Nordiska museet, Box 27820, SE-115 93 Stockholm, Sverige
*Fredrik Svanberg, docent i arkeologi
Adress: Historiska museet, Box 5428, SE-114 84 Stockholm, Sverige
From Nordisk Museologi 2012/2, Abstract pp. 107-116
Cathrine Baglo *
Title: Getting off track? Living exhibitions of Sámi in Europe and America.
Abstract: During the nineteenth century, new practices for the representation of otherness were established. One significant manifestation was the living exhibitions of Sdmi and other native peoples in zoological gardens, amusement parks, world fairs and other urban stages in Europe and America. These exhibitions have usually been perceived as the Western world’s staging of primitivity and race within hegemonic discourses based on exploitation and repression. The exhibitions in zoological gardens, in particular, have been considered instrumental in this respect. Although this dominant interpretation has provided important insight into how stereotypical features of cultural difference were normalized and naturalized, it has also seriously obscured the exhibitions’ own historicity and, in particular, the agency of the exhibited people themselves. In this dissertation, this a priori victimizing approach to the living exhibitions is challenged. A far more nuanced picture of motivations, experiences and power relations emerges through a detailed study of the Sdmi participants and their exhibitors, also providing a richer account of the exhibitions’ own ethnography.
Key words: Living exhibitions, Sámi, cultural reconstruction, physical anthropology, imperialism, contact zones, the history of affect, authenticity, ANT.
*Cathrine Baglo disputerte nylig for Ph.D-graden ved Universitetet i Tromsø, Institutt for arkeologi og sosialantropologi. Hun er for tiden ansatt ved Tromsø Museum — Universitetsmuseet hvor hun også hadde sin arbeidsplass som stipendiat.
Address: Seksjon for kulturvitenskap, Tromsø Museum — Universitetsmuseet, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norge