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2009/2 Abstracts

From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 4-15


Title: Computer games and art museums.

Abstract: Via a range of examples, the article discusses connections between technology, computer games and presentations of art. On the basis of Walter Benjamin's notorious dictum from the past that the illiterates of the future will not be those who cannot read or write but those who are not capable of dealing with the visual culture of their own time, the article argues that current worldwide visual digital communications, including computer gaming, also have interesting potential for the art museums, especially regarding youth as a forthcoming core group of art consumers. The focus is on - amongst others - the former virtual presentation of the Van Gogh Museum and the first shooter action game Duke Nukem, the Louvre Museum and the Da Vinci Code game and on remediating performances in the Second Life virtual universe.

Key words: Computer games, art and museums, virtual reality and visual multitasking, interface and reception theory, Van Gogh Museum, Louvre, Second Life, remediation, Wii.

*André Wang Hansen is associate professor at Aarhus University

Address: Department of Aesthetic Studies, Section for Art History, Langelandsgade 139, DK-8000 Århus

E-mail: kunaw@hum.au.dk

From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 16-28


Title: Those who cannot deal with art.

Abstract: The exhibitions held by The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in the latter half of the eighteenth century laid the basis for the subsequent practice of public art exhibitions in Denmark. The lack of a general background for this new activity, in the form of a broadly accepted framework of understanding, involved a sense of openness that proved attractive for people of very different kinds. This article shows how the artists of that time attempted to manage the public conditions and context for art by promoting one particular art experience, and limit others. This practice was especially aimed at excluding the lower classes, whose understanding of art was considered incompatible with that of the artists.

Key words: Art exhibition, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, 1750-1800, audience, spectator, beholder, power relations.

*Peter Storm Hansen, Mag. art. in Art History from the University of Copenhagen.

Adresse: Tåsingegade 38, 1. th., 2100 Kbh. Ø.

E-mail: p_storm_hansen @yahoo. dk

From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 29-44


Title: You can't see the exhibition for the artefacts.

Abstract: Most visitors to a museum exhibition expect the presence of authentic artefacts. With their materiality and history, these artefacts are considered to be specific to the exhibition medium.
The author goes beyond this to assert that the use of authentic artefacts makes it more difficult to bring about the communication that the exhibition is trying to achieve. Despite the attempt to use it as a means of communication, the authentic artifacts in the exhibition are actually a hindrance in the communicative process. By relating artefact-focused museum exhibitions to contemporary neo-realistic art installations, the author illustrates the role of the artefacts in the museum exhibition. The article points out how problematic the authentic artefacts are from a practical design perspective, and how the demand for authentic artefacts in the exhibition is actually a convention that limits what the exhibition can achieve as a means of communication.

Key words: Exhibition design, authentic artefacts, post-structuralism, realism, fiction, relational aesthetics, content-form, phenomenology.

**Tandi Agrell tog examen som inredningsarkitekt från Danmarks Designskole i København 1996. Hon har arbetat som frilansande utställningsdesigner i flera år, bland annat med Helsingborgs Museum, Malmö Kulturmiljö och Mångkulturellt Centrum. Tandi Agrell har en Fil mag i Praktisk kunskap (Södertörns Högskola 2009). Därutöver har hon läst idéhistoria (Göteborgs universitet 1993-94) och modern kulturhistoria (Åbent universitet, København, 2003-04). Denna artikel är en bearbetning av delar av hennes magisteruppsats i praktisk kunskap, som blev färdigställd i juni i år.

Address: Spacing designstudio, c/o Kolonien, Telefonvägen 30, SE-126 37 Hägersten


From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 45-54


The exhibition tells a story.

Abstract: The exhibition is often perceived as a narrative medium. The progression through time and space, in addition to the fact that there is both a sender and a recipient of the messages involved, is indicative of the fundamental narrative potential within the exhibition as such. In an era in which the experience economy reigns, there are the beginnings of a recognition of the advantages of letting the exhibition unfold as a meaningful and enthralling narrative. However, in addition to serving as a tool for presentation, this narrative perspective can also serve as a tool for analysis. Using the exhibition Til vægs, held at Kunsthal Charlottenborg in Copenhagen, Denmark, as source, an analysis of the complex narrative structure of the exhibition is carried out. On the basis of theories about the exhibition as a narrative medium and of Roland Earth es' structuralistic narratology, the narrative aspects of the exhibition are considered as a complex network of actors and formations of meaning, distributed over several different planes.

Key words: The exhibition medium, analysis, Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Til vægs, narrative, spatial sequence, the exhibition as text.

* *Ane Pilegaard Sørensen er BA i Litteraturvidenskab og studerende ved Danmarks Designskole, hvor hun primært beskæftiger sig med udstillingsdesign.


From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 55-79


Abstract: The article discusses a taxidermy work of a wild boar fighting two dogs. The tableau was made in 1824 by the Italian scientist Paolo Savi, director of the Natural History Museum in Pisa from 1823-1840. The point of departure is the sense of awe this brilliantly produced tableau evokes in the spectator. If an object could talk, what does the wild boar communicate? Stuffed animals are objects that operate in natural history exhibitions as well in several other contexts. They resist a standard classification, belonging to neither nature nor culture. The wild boar in question illustrates this ambiguity. To decode the tale of the boar, it is established as a centre in a network that connects Savi's scientific and personal knowledge, the wild boar as a noble trophy, the development of the wild boar hunt in Tuscany, perceptions of the boar and the connection between science and art.

Keywords: Natural history museum, taxidermy, wild boar, wild boar hunt, the wild boar in art, ornithology, natural history in Tuscany, Museo di Storia Naturale e del Territorio, Paolo Savi.

**Liv Emma Thorsen, Professor Department of Culture Studies and Oriental Languages, University of Oslo

Adresse: Address: P.O. Box 1010 Blindern NO-0315 Oslo, Norway
Phone: +47 22 85 49 13
Fax: +47 22 85 48 28

E-mail: I.e.thorsen@iks.uio.no

From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 80-91


Title: Handling of sacred objects - in museums.

Abstract: The paper focus on handling of scared objects in a museum. Even when the museum staff do not belong to the religion in question, one should handle the objects with respect and understanding, and let these qualities be part of the visitors experience.

Key words: Sacred objects, respect, Lame Deer, medicine bundle, Mongol shaman, Buddha figur, North American indians, totem pool.

** Rolf Gilberg er magister (mag.scient.) (1971) og ph.d. (1996) i etnografi ved Københavns Universitet. Har 1971-2006 været ansat som museumsinspektør ved Etnografisk Samling i Danmarks Nationalmuseum. Har skrevet ca. 300 bøger og artikler om især eskimoer, mongoler og shamaner, samt om museologi.

Address: Stokholmsvej 43, DK-3060 Espergærde, Danmark.


From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 92-109


Title: Schools and museums should work more closely together.

Abstract: The objective of the inquiry is to reveal to what extent school teachers and museum educators ensure that museums are a learning arena for school pupils.
We interviewed a small selection of teachers and museum educators regarding their practical and curricular collaboration prior, during and after a museum visit by a group of pupils. Our findings are in line with other international results, which show that teachers seem to regard museums visits as important for the student understanding. The questions asked include "How does cooperation between school and museum work? What do they actually cooperate about? What are the museum educators' intention(s) when they plan their programmes? What are the teachers' objectives when they plan their museum visits?"
We found that museum educators are normally familiar with the school curriculum and the school discourse. When they evaluate their programmes, they ask the teacher but rarely the students/pupils, who museum educators tend to forget about. School teachers seem to understand the learning potentials of a museum visit, but rarely used it. Museum visits end up being "just another nice day on a school trip". It is time for a new museum pedagogical approach, based on collaboration between schools and museums.

Key words: Museum and school, museum visits, students' learning dividend, learning theory, cooperation between school teachers and museum educators, museum education.

**Merethe Frøyland, Naturfagsenteret, Oslo Førsteamanuensis

Adresse: Universitetet i Oslo, Postboks 1099, 0317 Oslo


** Guri Langholm, Høgskolen i Oslo. Høgskolelektor

Address: Høyskolen i Oslo, Postboks 4 St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo

E-mail: Guri.Langholm@lui.hio.no

From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 110-129


Title: The museums and their research.

Abstract: This article deals with the theme of research conducted at the museums, with a focus on state investigations, cultural politics and the internal development of the Swedish museal profession. The statistics and surveys that have been prepared on the theme of research at the Swedish museums all point in one direction — there is a lack of museum staff with professional research competence and the level of active research performed at the museums is generally very low. This article discusses these facts from a historic and museological point of view. The author claims that both museums and universities would benefit from a higher level of research being performed at the Swedish museums, especially when one looks at the nearly non-existent research about the exhibition as a arena for multi-lingual and multi-modal communication.

Key words: Museums, museology, research, professionalization, education, commission to society.

**Richard Pettersson, Fil dr./Phd; Docent/ Research

Address: Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper/ Museologi Umeå universitet S-901 87 Umeå Sweden


From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 130-139


Abstract: This article is one part of an ongoing process to collect the entire history of Finnish Museums to be published in 2010. It has it roots in my dissertation' about our art museums' buildings. The final presentation will widen to consist of all kinds of museum buildings and also reflect on relationships between architecture, collections and exhibition design. Unlike many European countries in the first decades of the nineteenth century, Finland — then a Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire — did not posses the basic infrastructure of the art world, such as public collections, an art academy or organized trade in works of art. The field of art began to take shape, in practice, around the Finnish Art Society, which was founded in 1846. 2 It was at first a kind of public collector in addition to the University, founded in 1640. The art museum sector was a forerunner in the museum field and it also created both the classical and modern prototypes for the ideal museum building in Finland.

Key words: Art museum, modern museum, political museum, Acropolis, Alvar Aalto, "white cube".

**Marja-Liisa Rönkkö, PhD, Senior Lecturer in Museology

Adresse: Address: University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 38 D, PL 59, 00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland


From Nordisk Museologi 2009/2, Abstract pp. 140-145


Abstract: The history of nationally important heritage sites is often represented as a rather straightforward process of chronological evolution. At Turku Castle in Finland, this narrative is literally set in stone in the restoration works between the late 19th and mid 20th century. These restoration processes resulted in spatial anachronisms, but the architectural decisions also facilitate the visitors' experience of time and place at the castle. I am introducing new approaches from the fields of narrative and spatial theory, which can be applied in the analysis of the diverse and intertwining relationships of the past and the present in museal representations. The Turku Castle case proves that "inauthenticity" need not become a stumbling block.

Key words: Heritage, narrative, space.

** Petja. Aarnipuu, PhD, is a recent alumnus of the University of Helsinki Institute of Cultural Studies, folklore.

Address: Tyrvännöntie 1228, FI-14620 Tyrväntö


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