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2007/1 Abstracts

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 3-18

Anne Kahr-Højland

Title: Brave new world: Mobile phones, museums and learning

Abstract: This article deals with mobile technologies as tools for learning within museums. Using the presentation of EGO-TRAP - an exhibition which uses mobile technologies as the technical platform for creating an Augmented Reality - as my point of departure, I will discuss the advantages of using mobiles as tools for learning in museums. EGO-TRAP may be seen as a first modest step into a new museum paradigm. On the basis of a brief outline of the change of paradigms within museums I propose a new paradigm based on interactivity, narration and vir-tuality embedded in an Augmented Reality with an educational aim. This kind of Augmented Reality, I argue, seems to satisfy the demands of hands-on experiences, narrative structure and individual experiences, which I point out as being crucial for a beneficial learning experience at museums.

Key words: Augmented Reality, mobile phones, museum learning, narratives, interactivity, hands-on experience, science centres.

*Anne Kahr-Højland, Ph.D. Student.

Address: DREAM: Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials, University of Southern Denmark Odense.
E-mail: akh@dream.dk

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 19-29

Angelina Russo*, Jerry Watkins*, Lynda Kelly*, Sebastian Chan*

Title: Social media and cultural interactive experiences in museums

Abstract: Social media such as blogs, wikis and digital stories facilitate knowledge exchange through social networking. Such media create a new forum within which dispersed audiences - including youth, regional and rural communities -can engage with museums to actively debate notions of identity, and voice these reflections online. Social media can impact on formal and informal learning within the museum and the effect that this may have on notions of cultural identity. This represents a shift in the ways in which museums:
• act as trusted cultural online networks;
• distribute community knowledge; and
• view their role as custodians of cultural content.
Museum communication systems such as exhibitions, public programs, outreach and education seek to provide complex cultural interactive experiences. Social media challenge existing communication models, and few museums have clear strategies for engaging communities in content creation. This paper will investigate some of the issues surrounding the use of social media in museum programs and will argue that there are strong epistemological reasons for using social media to add value to museum programs.

Keywords: Keywords: Social media, museum communication, web 2.0, museum learning.

*Dr Angelina, Russo, Senior Research Fellow, Queensland University of Technology

Address: Queensland University of Technology, Centre of Excell, Creative Industries Precinct Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove Brisbane 4059.
E-mail: a.russo@qut.edu.au

*Mr Jerry Watkins, Senior Research Associate, Queensland University of Technology

Address: Queensland University of Technology, Creative Industries Precinct Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove Brisbane 4059.
E-mail: jj.watkins@qut.edu.au

*Dr Lynda Kelly, Head, Australian Museum Audience Research Centre, Australian Museum

Address: Australian Museum, 6 College Street Sydney (opposite Hyde Park), NSW2010 Australia.
E-mail: lynda.kelly@austmus.gov.au

*Mr Sebastian Chan, Manager, Web Services, Powerhouse Museum.

Address: Powerhouse Museum
street - 500 Harris St Ultimo, NSW Australia
postal - PO Box K346, Haymarket, NSW 1238
tel-61 292170109
fax-61 292170689
www.powerhousemuseum. com
E-mail: seb@snarl.org

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 30-45

Jolien Schroyen*, Kris Gabriels*, Daniel Teunkens*, Karel Robert*, Kris Luyten*, Karin Coninx* and Elke Manshoved*

Title: Beyond mere information provisioning: a handheld museum guide based on social activities and playful learning

Abstract: During a museum visit, social interaction can improve intellectual, social, personal and cultural development. With the advances in technology, the use of personal mobile handheld devices — such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) — that replace the traditional paper guidebooks is becoming a common sight at various heritage sites all over the world. This technology often leads to problems such as isolating visitors from their companions and distracting visitors away from their surroundings. We believe careful design of mobile applications and taking advantage of low-cost networking infrastructure can avoid such isolation of the visitor from his or her surroundings and encourage interaction with both surroundings and companions. In this paper, we describe our approach to create a mobile handheld guide that supports the learning process by exploiting social interaction between visitors and subtly matching the content and concepts shown on the handheld guide with what can be found in the museum.

Keywords: Collaborative learning, social interaction, mobile technologies, museums, PDA.

*Jolien Schroyen, Educational Assistant

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Tel: +32(0) 11 2684 11
Fax: +32 (0) 11 268499

*Kris Gabriels, Computer scientist

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Tel: +32 (0) 11 26 84 11
Fax: +32 (0) 11 26 84 99

E-mail: kris.gabriels@uhasselt.be

*Daniel Teunkens, Computer scientist

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
E-mail: daniel.teunkens@uhasselt.be

*Karel Robert, Graphic Designer

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University,
Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Tel: +32(0) 11 2684 11
Fax: +32(0) 11 268499

*Kris Luyten, Professor in Computer Science

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Tel: +32(0) 112684 11
Fax: +32 (0) 11 268499
E-mail: kris.luyten@uhasselt.be

*Karin Coninx, Professor in Computer Science

Address: Expertise Centre for Digital Media (EDM)
Hasselt University, Campus Diepenbeek
Wetenschapspark 2
BE-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
Tel: +32(0) 11 2684 11
Fax: +32 (0) 11 268499
E-mail: karin.coninx@uhasselt.be

*Elke Manshoven, Customer Relations Assistant

Address: Provincial Gallo-Roman Museum c/o Wijngaardstraat 65 BE-3700 Tongeren, Belgium
Tel: +32 (0) 12 67 03 46
E-mail: emanshoven@limburg.be

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 46-57

Hanna Pirinen*

Title:"The Nordic concept" in relation to the arts. Politics and exhibition policy in the Third Reich

Abstract: Nazi Germany used official cultural cooperation for ideological propaganda purposes. Germany did not enter into any distinct cultural agreements with the Nordic countries, but cooperated in separate projects such as art exhibitions. This article focuses on an exhibition of Finnish art organized in Germany in 1935 and on an exhibition of German art correspondingly organized in Finland in 1936. The article discusses the compilation of an exhibition as a statement of opinion. Compiling an exhibition is always a matter of making choices: decisions have to be made on the theme of the exhibition, any larger entity it is to be linked with, what should be included and what should be left out. An exhibition always represents something; it can thus never be non-aligned or 'innocent'. An art exhibition that forms part of cultural cooperation organized by a totalitarian system is an example of an enforced display of ideology.

Keywords: Exhibtions, cultural cooperation, cultural policy, Nazi Germany, political art, propaganda.

*Hanna Pirinen, Senior assistant, Ph.D., Docent in Art History

Address: University of Jyväskylä
Department of Art and Culture Studies
FIN- 40014 Jvyäskylän yliopisto
E-mail: Hapirine@campus.jyu.fi

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 58-73

Maarit Hakkarainen and Tiina Koivulahti*

Title: Research into art Looted by the nazis - an important international task

Abstract: In the period 1933-1945 the Nazis orchestrated the most massive art theft in world history. The exact number of looted art objects is not known, although estimates vary from hundreds of thousands to millions. A huge number of art objects looted by the Nazis are still missing. They have been spread around the world through a variety of different channels and can still be found in the art market. Such looted art objects have also ended up in museum collections. All countries have a moral duty to participate in the efforts to identify and restitute objects looted from their owners by the Nazis.

Keywords: Provenance, Nazi era, National Socialism, looting, confiscation, art, World War II, Third Reich, collecting, museum, holocaust.

*Maarit Hakkarainen Ph.Lic. and Tiina Koi-vulahti P h. Lic.

Address: Dept. of Arts and Cultural Studies
PL 35 (JT)
FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä
E-mail: sahakkar@cc.jyu.fi, tikoivul@cc.jyu.fi

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 74-81

Suvi Niinisalo*

From a history of war into a multicultural urban environment:

Abstract: Finland, under Swedish rule at the time, started constructing the Lappeenranta Fortress in the 1720s for defence against an eastern threat, A small town had been founded on the site as early as 1649. In 1741, the Russians invaded the fortress in a fierce battle. Russians, led by Aleksandr Suvorov, started to improve the fortress in the late 18th century. The oldest buildings in the fortress date back to this time. When Finland was annexed into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy, the fortress was employed as a correctional facility for prisoners. After the Second World War, the fortress was left to deteriorate, but in the 1970s a 30-year conservation project was launched. This article explores the effects of this conservation work on the city of Lappeenranta as well as on its inhabitants.

Keywords: Fortress, conservation, impact study, cultural impacts.

*Suvi Niinisalo, MA, Researcher, South Karelian Institute, Lappeenranta University of Technology

Address: PL 20, 53851 Lappeenranta Puh. 05 621 7006, 0503812 744 www.lut.fi/eki.
E-mail: suvi.niinisalo@lut.fi

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 82-86

Peter Aronsson*

Title: Making National Museums (NaMu)

Abstract: The purpose of the program is to develop the tools, concepts and organisational resources necessary for investigating and comparing the major public structure of National Museums, as created historically and responding to contemporary challenges of globalisation, European integration, and new media. What are the forces and values of traditional national display in dealing with challenges to national, cultural and political discourse? This will be achieved by a series of conferences providing a venue for younger scholars and eminent researcher from Europe to gather and develop the multi-disciplinary competence necessary to understand and compare the dynamics of national museums in a framework for broader historical culture and identity politics.

Keywords: National museums, nationalism, narratives, integration.

*Peter Aronsson, Professor i Kulturarv och historiebruk

Address: Tema Q, Kultur och samhälle
Linköpings universitet, SE-60174 Norrköping
Tel: +4611363096
www.isak.liu.se/temaq, www.namu.se
E-mail: Peter Aronsson peter@aronsson.st

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 110-113


Title:Cultural Heritage and Ownership

Abstract: On 20-22 November 2006, a PhD seminar on cultural heritage and ownership was arranged by the Research School for Studies in Maritime and Coastal Environment, Heritage and Sustainable Tourism (MAST) and the Danish Research School of Cultural Heritage. The seminar was hosted by the University of Southern Denmark, Campus Esbjerg and aimed at presenting different perspectives on cultural heritage in current international research. Lecturers and PhD s from Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, Poland, Portugal and Israel fully demonstrated the broad range of approaches. In spite of a great variety in contributions from history, anthropology, archaeology, ethnology, tourism studies, conservation studies and engineering, many shared themes could be identified, such as how cultural heritage can be (mis)used in both the experience economy and tourism, in the construction of identities and within nation states. Themes such as inclusion and exclusion through selection and classification, the idea of felt and formal ownership, and the notion of authenticity where also discussed.
These last 10-20 years have seen an enormous spread of the notion of cultural heritage and its very broad use, to the point where an adequate definition no longer seems possible. Even though emphasis on our historic inheritance can be positive, it is also crucial to undertake scholarly debate and discus why and how the notion is used and applied. The contributors to the seminar, both lecturers and PhDs, managed to demonstrate that scholarly diversity is no obstacle to mutual inspiration and fruitful contributions to a shared, critical stance in the field of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Cultural heritage, ownership, authenticity, inclusion and exclusion, tourism, experience economy, identity, nation state, cross disciplinary, research school.

*Carina Ren, Ph. d.-studerende

Adresse: Center for turisme, innovation og kultur/Syddansk Universitet Niels Bohrs vej 9 DK-6700 Esbjerg
E-mail: ren@sitkom.sdu.dk

*Mette Guldberg, Museumsinspektør, ph.d.

Adresse: Center for Maritime og Regionale Studier, Fisken- og Søfartsmuseet/Syddansk Universitet, Tarphagevej 2, DK-6710 Esbjerg V
E-mail: mg@fimus.dk

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 114-120


Title: Archives for everyone!

Abstract: In April 2007 a network of archivists from Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark met in Copenhagen to discuss the outreach of archives in terms of education and communication. The purpose of the seminar was to exchange experiences and to generate new and creative ideas. Such an exchange of experiences is important, because there are few people working in this field in the Nordic countries. This was an opportunity for sharing different initiatives.
The participants were all convinced that it is desirable to get more people to use the archives. Hence one of the main subjects was how to get more people interested in the institutions. Four of the participants told about different new initiatives which they had tried out. These consisted of experiments with different types of art in the archives, virtual education and the use of a method called hot spot. The result of the seminar was two specific projects. The first was to put together an anthology, primarily because there is a great lack of material about the outreach of the archives. The second was a project about using art in the archives, in which several of the participants showed great interest.
A lot of other inspiring ideas were shared and there is definitely a basis for more meetings in the network and more cooperation between the Nordic countries.
Keywords: Outreach of archives, Nordic cooperation, art and archives, hot spot method, 'Archives Day'

*Inger Bjørn Knudsen er stud.mag i historie og museologi ved Københavns Universitet og tilknyttet Københavns Bymuseum

Adresse: Kastelsvej l, 3. -l, 2100 Kbh. Ø.
E-mail: ibk@stud.ku.dk l ingerknudsen@gmail.com

From Nordisk Museologi 2007/1, Abstract pp. 121-129


Title: Trade in stolen cultural heritage. UNESCO conventions and the role of Denmark

Abstract: During the Summer of 2006, the Danish press investigated the Danish auction houses and museums in order to test whether objects knowingly smuggled out of their countries of origin were bought and sold in Denmark. This has raised the question whether Danish legislation is adequate in relation to protecting the world's cultural heritage, and led to the organisation of the public meeting in March 2007 to discuss the issue. The invited speakers touched on subjects that included the destruction of Iraq's cultural heritage, the lack of legal tools for returning objects illegally exported from South America, experience with ratification of the international conventions in Norway and the Netherlands, and questions about the role of both the auction business and the museums in trading in stolen cultural property. As a very positive result of the meeting, the Danish Minister of Culture announced that Denmark will work on ratifying the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects.
Keywords: Protection of cultural heritage, illegal trade, stolen cultural objects, legislation, international conventions, destruction of archaeological sites, museum acquisitions, auction houses, collectors.

*Vinnie Nørskov, lektor og museumsleder Antikmuseet, koordinator for Masteruddannelsen i Museologi ved Center for Museologi, Aarhus Universitet, og bestyrelsesmedlem af Dansk ICOM.

Adresse: Antikmuseet, Aarhus Universitet, Victor Albecksvej, bygn. 1414, 8000 Århus C.
E-mail: klavn@hum.au.dk

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